Synthetic intelligence (AI) chatbots are able to mimicking human interactions with the assistance of oral, written, or verbal communication with the person. AI chatbots can present vital health-related data and companies, in the end resulting in promising technology-facilitated interventions.
Research: Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based Chatbots in Promoting Health Behavioral Changes: A Systematic Review. Picture Credit score: TippaPatt / Shutterstock.com
AI chatbots in healthcare
Present digital telehealth and therapeutic interventions are related to a number of challenges together with unsustainability, low adherence, and inflexibility. AI chatbots are able to overcoming these challenges and offering personalised on-demand assist, increased interactivity, and better sustainability.
AI chatbots make the most of information enter from numerous sources, which is adopted by information evaluation that’s accomplished via pure language processing (NLP) and machine studying (ML). Information output then helps customers obtain their well being habits objectives.
Thus, AI chatbots are able to selling numerous well being behaviors by successfully delivering interventions. Furthermore, this know-how can present further advantages to well being habits adjustments by integrating into embodied features.
Most earlier research performed on AI chatbots aimed to enhance psychological well being outcomes. Comparatively, current research are more and more centered on using AI chatbots for inciting well being habits adjustments.
Nonetheless, one systematic evaluation on the impression of AI chatbots on modifying life was related to a number of limitations. These embody the lack of the authors to distinguish AI chatbots from different chatbots. Moreover, this research focused solely a restricted set of behaviors and didn’t talk about all potential platforms that might make the most of AI chatbots.
A brand new systematic evaluation printed on the preprint server medRxiv* discusses the outcomes of earlier research on AI chatbot intervention traits, performance, and elements, in addition to their impression on a variety of well being behaviors.
In regards to the research
The present research was carried out in June 2022 and adopted the PRISMA tips. Herein, three authors searched seven bibliographic databases together with IEEE Xplore, PubMed, JMIR publications, EMBASE, ACM Digital Library, Internet of Science, and PsychINFO.
The search concerned a mix of key phrases that belonged to 3 classes. The primary class included key phrases that have been associated to AI-based chatbots, the second included key phrases associated to well being behaviors, and the third centered on interventions.
The inclusion standards for the search have been research that concerned intervention analysis centered on well being behaviors, people who have been developed on current AI platforms or AI algorithms, empirical research that used chatbots, English articles that have been printed between 1980 and 2022, in addition to research that reported quantitative or qualitative intervention outcomes. All information have been extracted from these research and underwent high quality evaluation in accordance with the Nationwide Institutes of Well being (NIH) High quality Evaluation Device.
A complete of 15 research matched the inclusion standards, most of which have been distributed throughout developed nations. The median pattern dimension was 116 individuals, whereas the imply was 7,200 individuals.
Many of the research included grownup individuals, whereas solely two concerned individuals lower than 18 years of age. All research individuals had pre-existing circumstances and included people with decrease bodily train, overweight, people who smoke, substance abusers, breast most cancers sufferers, and Medicare recipients.
The goal well being behaviors included cessation of smoking, promotion of a wholesome life-style, discount of substance abuse, and adherence to remedy or therapy. Furthermore, solely 4 research have been reported to make use of randomized management trials (RCTs), whereas others used a quasi-experimental design.
The danger of reporting outcomes and bias within the randomization course of was low, the chance of bias from meant interventions was low to average, the chance of bias in consequence measurement was average, and the chance of outcomes from unintended sources was excessive. All elements for the outline of AI elements have been adequate, besides the dealing with of unavailable enter information and enter information traits.
Out of 15 research, six reported feasibility when it comes to the imply variety of messages that have been exchanged with the chatbot per thirty days and security. Furthermore, 11 research reported usability when it comes to usability of the content material, ease of utilizing the chatbot, user-initiated dialog, non-judgmental protected house, and outside-office assist. Acceptability and engagement have been reported in 12 research when it comes to satisfaction, price of retention, technical points, and period of the engagement.
A rise in bodily exercise was reported in six research, together with an enchancment within the eating regimen in three research via chatbot-based interventions. Smoking cessation was reported within the 4 assessed research, whereas one research reported a discount in substance use and two research reported a rise in adherence to therapy or remedy via using chatbots.
A number of behavioral change theories have been built-in into the chatbots together with the transtheoretical mannequin (TTM), cognitive behavioral remedy (CBT), social cognitive concept (SCT), behavior formation mannequin, motivational interviewing, Mohr’s Mannequin of Supportive Accountability, and emotionally centered remedy to supply motivational assist and observe the habits of individuals. Many of the research focused behavioral purpose setting, used behavioral monitoring, and supplied behavior-related data, whereas 4 research additionally offered emotional assist.
Most research used completely different AI methods reminiscent of ML, NLP, Hybrid Well being Recommender Methods (HHRS), hybrid methods (ML and NLP), and face-tracking know-how to supply personalised interventions. The chatbots primarily used text-based communication and have been both built-in into pre-existing platforms or delivered as impartial platforms. Moreover, most chatbots required information on the customers’ background data, their objectives, and suggestions on behavioral efficiency to make sure the supply of personalised companies.
Taken collectively, AI chatbots can effectively promote a wholesome life-style, the cessation of smoking, and adherence to therapy or drugs. Moreover, the present research discovered that AI chatbots demonstrated important usability, feasibility, and acceptability.
Taken collectively, AI chatbots are able to offering personalised interventions and may very well be scalable to numerous and enormous populations. Nonetheless, additional research are wanted to accumulate an correct description of AI-related processes, since AI chatbot interventions are nonetheless at a nascent stage.
The present research didn’t embody a meta-analysis and centered solely on three behavioral outcomes. Moreover, articles from unselected databases, articles in different languages, gray literature, and unpublished articles weren’t included within the research.
A further limitation was that the interventions couldn’t present a transparent description of excluded AI chatbots. The research additionally lacked generalizability and affected person security data was restricted.
medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific studies that aren’t peer-reviewed and, due to this fact, shouldn’t be considered conclusive, information medical observe/health-related habits, or handled as established data.